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Indian Food 101: Your Guide to an Indian Restaurant Menu

This Indian food guide is a cheat sheet for Indian restaurant menus. It covers the most popular Indian dishes — what they are, how they’re served & more!

indian food 101 graphic Why We Created This Guide to Popular Indian Food

I love Indian food. All Indian food. However, when I ask people what their favorite Indian dish is, the answer more often than not is “Chicken Tikka Masala.” This has always bothered me a bit. Now, don’t get me wrong, Chicken Tikka Masala is AMAZING! In fact, if I had to pick one Indian dish to introduce to a non convert, it would probably be Chicken Tikka Masala. But there is so much more to Indian food!

The more I questioned people, the more I found out that it wasn’t that they didn’t like other Indian dishes, they simply felt intimidated by the names and did not understand them.  The irony here is that Indian food names are quite simple.  The dishes are usually named after the main components or where they come from. But given that fact, if I did not understand the language, I’d be confused too.

So consider this my effort to make things right. Here’s a rundown on what you commonly find on a typical Indian restaurant menu. Now next time when you go to your favorite Indian restaurant to enjoy a meal, use this guide to the most popular Indian dishes and order something outside of your comfort zone. There’s a good chance you will be surprised to know how much goodness you were missing out on!

If you would like to enjoy Indian food at home, you can purchase our products. They are at a store near you, or you can make the most popular dishes at home with our Home Chef Collection products.

Indian Appetizers

Indian Appetizers on a plate next to small bowls of dipping sauces

Being the foodie country that India is, there’s a meal planned around every time of the day and food available in every corner. Appetizers served in Indian restaurants are typically popular Indian street foods.

Bhajji: Bhajji (or Pakoras) are crispy deep fried dollops of spicy chickpea batter served with spicy condiments called chutney. Onion bhajji features thinly sliced onions that have been added to the chickpea batter and then deep fried to crispy perfection.

Samosa: Another popular Indian street food is the samosa. Samosas contain a small amount of spicy potato or meat filling  that are then wrapped in dough and deep fried until crispy and flaky.

Vada Pav: Vadas are deep fried dumplings or flattened patties of potato, and a pav is a plain old dinner roll. Vada pav is essentially a spicier vegetarian version of sliders where the dumpling or patty is sandwiched between two halves of a dinner roll. Oftentimes, condiments are added to the mix (often a green mint and cilantro chutney).

Indian Breads

Indian Bread in a wicker basket

Breads in India are mostly flatbreads. It’s the way they are cooked or the type of flour used to make them that determines what they are called.

Naan: Naan is one of the most popular Indian flatbreads. To make a naan, wheat flour dough is prepared either by allowing it to rise using yeast, or by the addition of yogurt to the dough. That dough is then rolled into flatbreads and cooked in an Indian oven, called a tandoor.

Roti: Naan is popular on Indian restaurant menus, but roti is a staple in Indian homes. Roti is a no fuss Indian bread, typically made with whole wheat flour that’s kneaded into a soft dough, then rolled into thin circles and cooked on a tava (Indian skillet) on the stovetop.

Paratha: Paratha is a flatbread that is layered and pan fried. They are made with wheat flour, and ghee or oil is smeared between layers of dough while rolling them. But there are many ways in which you can make a paratha, specially stuffed paratha. A Stuffed Paratha is when filling is stuffed into a ball of dough and then rolled into a flatbread.

  • Aloo Paratha: With spicy potato filling
  • Gobi Paratha: With spicy cauliflower filling
  • Vegetable Paratha: With variety of vegetables stuffed

Poori: Poori are flat circles of dough that have been deep fried in ghee or oil until they puff and become slightly crispy on the outside. Typically served with aloo ki sazi (stir-fried potatoes), this is a beloved comfort food in northern India.

Indian Meals

chicken tikka masala on gray plate

Tikka Masala: Tikka is the Hindi term for “small chunks,” and masala means a spice blend. So when small chunks of anything, like chicken, are cooked in a sauce with a particular spice blend, it is called Chicken Tikka Masala. The same way when paneer comes to the play, it is called Paneer Tikka Masala. The world famous sauce used in tikka masala is mainly tomato-based, with some richness added by cream or thick yogurt.

Chana (Chole) Masala: Chana or Chole is the Hindi name for chickpeas. Chana masala is simply chickpeas cooked in an onion, ginger, and garlic-based sauce with garam masala added to it. This is a popular North Indian curry; it’s spicy and packs a punch. It’s typically served with soft and flaky bread called Bhature, or with a baked, pillowy bread called Kulcha.

Saag Paneer: Saag is simply the hindi name for leafy green vegetables. But this particular dish refers to a delicious curry where spinach is cooked with spices and then paneer is added to the dish. At some Indian restaurants, you can also find this dish under the name of Palak Paneer, where palak is a hindi name for spinach.

Korma: Korma is a preparation where protein is cooked with a yogurt-based sauce flavored with ginger and garlic. Fried onion is added to thicken the sauce and that is what also gives it a hint of sweetness.

  • Navratan Korma (made with an array of vegetables and paneer)
  • Chicken Korma
  • Vegetable Korma (vegetarian)

Rogan josh: This dish hails from the beautiful northern state of India, Kashmir. With its roots in Persian cuisine, this dish is traditionally cooked with lamb or goat. Rogan josh consists of pieces of lamb or mutton braised with a gravy flavored with garlic, ginger and aromatic spices (cloves, bay leaves, cardamom, and cinnamon), and some versions incorporate onions or yogurt.

  • Chicken Roganjosh
  • Mutton Roganjosh or Goat Roganjosh

Vindaloo: When the Portuguese came to India and established their colony in Goa, they also brought with them their cuisine. And when that Portuguese food married with Indian flavors, several good things happened. Vindaloo is one of the products of that. Fiery and flavorful, Vindaloo is traditionally made with pork, marinated in wine vinegar and garlic.

  • Pork Vindaloo
  • Chicken Vindaloo
  • Lamb Vindaloo

Dal: Dal is the hindi name for lentils, and it broadly refers to all lentil soups in an Indian cuisine. Typically, the lentils are mixed with water, turmeric, and salt, then cooked to perfection.

  • Dal Makhni: 2-3 varieties of lentils/beans cooked with spices and cream or butter added for richness. Makhni refers to the use of makhan, or cream.
  • Tadka: Dal with a mild tempering of whole spices like cumin seeds, mustard seeds etc.
  • Chana Dal: Split Bengal lentil soup
  • Dhaba Style Dal: Dhaba are roadside food joints by the freeways in India. The food served there is pretty popular and the dal served in those dhabas somehow made their way into the Indian restaurants.

Biryani: A very popular Indian rice dish with its roots in the Mughal empire in India, Biryani is a rice dish prepared by several layers of rice, some kind of spiced meat or protein and some added richness added by ghee or yogurt and then slow cooked to perfection. This is one of the dishes

  • Chicken Biryani
  • Hyderabadi Dum Biryani (this tends to be one of the spicy varieties and usually uses chicken)
  • Goat Biryani
  • Biryani

Indian Drinks

milk being poured into a glass of Indian Chai

Chai/Tea: The Indian name for tea is Chai. You make chai by cooking a certain ration of water to milk, then add sugar as a sweetener and black tea together. And yes, when your order a “Chai Tea Latte” at Starbucks you’re ordering a “Tea Tea Latte.”

Masala Chai: This is when you add some kind of spice (masala) to the concoction above, and that makes it Masala Chai. A typical masala chai has a blend of cardamom, cinnamon, pepper and ginger cooked in chai.

Lassi: A sweet yogurt drink traditionally made by thinning out yogurt with milk or water and then sweetening it for more flavor. Cream is added to the drink too to make it richer. Lassi can be made into different flavors simply by adding various fruits, additional flavorings, etc. For example, mango lassi is made by mixing mango and yogurt, whereas strawberry lassi contains fresh strawberries, etc.

Chas: A savory buttermilk drink that has just a kick to it (because most Indian dishes have a kick to it!). This drink is usually enjoyed after a meal, as the use of cumin, mint and rock salt aids for a good digestion.

Indian Desserts

various Indian Sweets on a large brown platter

Gulab Jamun: If Chicken Tikka Masala (or some might say Butter Chicken) is the king of Indian curries, then Gulab Jamun is definitely the king if deserts. Milk solids are crushed into powder and then mixed with milk in order to knead into a smooth dough. The dough is then rolled into small balls, deep fried, and dunked into a sugar syrup until the balls absorb the syrup and become soft and juicy.

Halwa: Halwa is a pudding made with any variety of flour — like chickpea flour, wheat flour, semolina or root vegetables — that’s cooked with sugar, ghee and water/milk.

  • Gajar Halwa: Carrot pudding, made by cooking fresh grated carrots along with sugar, milk and ghee.
  • Besan Halwa: Besan is hindi name for chickpea flour. This pudding is made by cooking chickpea flour in a rich sugar syrup.
  • Mung Halwa: Made with mung bean flour.

Barfi: Barfi is essentially a more solidified form of a milk-based pudding. In this dish, a sweet batter is thickened and then set to cool and cut into smaller pieces.

  • Kaju Ki Barfi: Kaju is hindi name for cashews. So this kaju barfi is made with a sweet cashew paste.
  • Almond Barfi: Made with almonds.
  • Pista Barfi: Made with pistachios
  • Doodh Peda: Doodh is milk, and peda is a circular barfi. In order to made doodh peda, sweet mik is thickened and flavored with spices like cardamom or saffron, and then small portions are rolled into small discs.

Other Indian Food Terms to Know

Curry: Often confused with the term “Curry Powder,” the word curry just means gravy. There is no flavor associated with “curry,” but traditional Indian curries have very little in common with the Curry Chicken Salad at your local grocery store.

Tikka: Small pieces or cutlets of chicken/meat.

Masala: Any mixture of spices.  One of the most common is “garam masala,” which translates to warm or hot.  These are the spices that make the body warm.

Saag: Greens. Most often spinach but can be mustard or other greens. “Palak” is specifically spinach.

Paneer: Indian Cheese. The only cheese used in Indian Cooking.

Chana: Chickpeas.

Dal: Lentils and split beans.

Gobi: Cauliflower.

Aloo: Potatoes.

Matar: Peas.

Tandoor: Clay oven. Anything that comes out of clay oven will usually be preceded with Tandoori. (Tandoori Naan, Tandoori Fish, Tandoori Chicken, etc. )

Chaat: The all-inclusive word for Indian Street Food.

Dosa: South Indian crepe made from fermented rice and lentil batter.

Idli: Steamed lentil cakes made from fermented rice and lentil batter.

Sambar: South Indian Lentil, served with Idli and Dosa.

Chutney: Condiment. Most people are familiar with the fruit chutneys, like mango, but some of the best chutneys are herb based like cilantro and mint.

Murgh: Chicken

Sabzi: Vegetables

Matar: Peas

Bhuna: Fried

Thali: Literally means a plate, but in the context of Indian cuisine it mainly refers to a way of serving food. Several dishes are served on the same plate, and you essentially start an appetizer and finish off with a desert or a cooling drink.

Tadka: Tempering

Malai: Cream

Jeera: Cumin Seeds

Papad: Lentil crackers

Keema: Ground Meat

54 Responses to Indian Food 101: Your Guide to an Indian Restaurant Menu

  1. R Tuliani 3 years ago at 10:05 am #

    Very informative article, thanks!

    • Chiro(Dilip) Deb 2 months ago at 12:40 am #

      Wonderful informative article, thanks!

  2. Roger Schneider 3 years ago at 11:10 am #

    Please tell us about pappadam.

    • Prerna Singh 3 years ago at 3:50 pm #

      Putting that on our “to-do” Roger! Thanks for the suggestion.

    • Hemanth 2 years ago at 8:33 pm #

      It is mentioned as Papad above.

  3. Mickey Fried 3 years ago at 11:27 am #

    Thanks this was very helpful !

  4. Elizabeth 3 years ago at 11:37 am #

    Thank you – a wonderful education about Indian food. Very thoughtful to share.

  5. Maryanne Woelfer 3 years ago at 12:13 pm #

    I love your food and would like to see any updates regarding where your dishes can be found.

    • Prerna Singh 3 years ago at 3:49 pm #

      Thanks Maryanne!
      There’s a good chance you can find our products at a store very close to you 🙂
      If you just click on “Store Locator” on the top right of this page, and type in your zipcode, you should see a whole list of products available at stores around you.

  6. Amisha Chaudhary 3 years ago at 1:02 pm #

    This is a great little cheat sheet for the Honorary Desis/Indians in my life. Thanks Dalbir!

  7. Jane Toomajanian 3 years ago at 1:25 pm #

    This guide is great! I’m saving it for future reference. Thank you.

    • Prerna Singh 3 years ago at 3:45 pm #

      Thanks Jane!

  8. ElysaYanowitz 3 years ago at 3:51 pm #

    Worth reading!

  9. Kenneth wiczynski 3 years ago at 5:02 pm #

    Thanks for the information , my wife and family are from India and they all pronounce the food a little differently , this helps me out where it’s spelled out, peace & love

  10. Ellen Layendecker 3 years ago at 10:46 pm #

    Fantastic article! I love “Indian” food, but haven’t really figured out the “structure” of the cuisine. This is very helpful . One question: what is Mithai?
    I’ve alway’s loved Sukhi’s chutneys, and have at least 3 varieties in the fridge.
    I used to get your Vindaloo paste – it was my secret ingredient in my deviled eggs.
    Thank you!

    • Prerna Singh 3 years ago at 8:19 am #

      Thanks for your feedback Ellen! Mithai is just a hindi name for Indian desserts.
      Vindaloo paste in deviled eggs? Sounds like a killer idea!

    • Melissa 1 year ago at 11:48 am #

      I would very much like to know that recipe please. I have a friend who I talk to a lot, he lives in India so I am trying very hard to learn as much as I can about their food, culture, etc. Thank you and God Bless

      • Prerna Singh 1 year ago at 10:14 am #

        Of course! We have several Indian recipes on the blog. Please let us know if you are looking for something in particular.

  11. Randall Lau 3 years ago at 8:00 am #

    Aloha to Those that sent me a reply to my text msg.
    Thank-you once again for the case 101.
    If you ever decide to open a cooking class in Honolulu, I would like to sign-up as a student.
    Will you be offering more selections at Costco ?
    Mahalo nui loa (thank-you very much).
    Randall Lau

  12. Steele Honda 3 years ago at 6:38 pm #

    Thanks for the guide to an Indian restaurant menu. I love Indian food, and I am trying to find some good restaurants near me that offer it. I am still trying to work my way up to having the spiciest dish, but I’m getting there. http://indianchimney.com.au/

  13. Simple Ways To Save On Food And Drinks At Your Wedding 3 years ago at 9:25 am #

    we enjoy what you guys have posted here. don’t stop the super work!

  14. Angela Waterford 2 years ago at 9:21 am #

    I’ve always wanted to try Pakoras since that’s one of the Indian foods that I haven’t tasted before. Thanks for mentioning my favorite bread Roti which I’ll definitely order for take out in case I find a good restaurant to order from. I think I might try some Korma as well so that I can have some varied spices in my food that I haven’t tried yet. http://www.coromandelcuisine.com/southportcatering/

  15. Laura 2 years ago at 1:08 pm #

    What?! No ladoo on this list? LOL it’s my favorite Indian dessert. This is a great list with lots of info!

  16. Cecil Coe 2 years ago at 9:51 am #

    Great list. Very informative. It will be even better if you could include more photos.

    • Prerna Singh 2 years ago at 12:03 pm #

      Thanks for the feedback. We will try to update the post with more photos.

  17. Sameera 2 years ago at 3:53 pm #

    Are all your dishes halal?

    • Prerna Singh 2 years ago at 9:52 am #

      Thank you for taking the time to write to us. Most of our items are Certified Halal or made with Halal meat and are in the process of becoming certified. The only product we currently produce that are not made with Halal meat is our Toasted Coconut and Mango Meatballs and Meatball Curry. I hope this information helps and please let us know if we can answer any other questions.

  18. Alexander Wenceslaus 2 years ago at 10:46 pm #

    Very informative article. Any one from any walk of life with different culture, language and ethnic can understand and quite relate to the materials explained in this article. Thanks

  19. Simran Khattar 2 years ago at 5:06 am #

    Thanks for sharing this useful information on diverse Indian food.

    • Prerna Singh 2 years ago at 1:04 pm #

      Thanks for taking the time and giving it a read! 🙂

  20. shivam mishra 2 years ago at 9:57 pm #

    Thanks for sharing a valuable article with us, because I am tired to decide the menu items, here I get all answer. Is designing also effect?

  21. Hungry in New Delhi 2 years ago at 6:28 am #

    Thank you so much for this article. This is a really helpful intro.

  22. Trupti V 1 year ago at 11:05 am #

    Very informative!

    • Prerna Singh 1 year ago at 12:02 pm #

      Thanks Tripti!

  23. Hunka Hunka Town - Best Restaurant in Chandigarh. 1 year ago at 8:24 am #

    Nice Blog! It’s very informative Content!

  24. Phyllis Jelley 1 year ago at 3:33 pm #

    Thank you for this article of Indian Food 101. I have loved Indian food for 50 years, my husband was Indian, and we would have the best family reunions when his brothers would come to the US from India for a visit. I have been to India twice in the last six years to visit my husband’s relatives. I absolutely love them!! I have quite a nice collection of Indian spices and my daughter and I enjoy cooking Indian. My choice changes now and then. Now, I enjoy ordering Lamb Karma. Love it!! We have three very good Indian restaurants in our area of the Puget Sound in Washington. Your products are sold at our local Trader Joe’s, which is so handy.
    Thank you for your interesting articles and recipes.

    • Ali 1 year ago at 10:16 am #

      We are learning to to prepare indian food and this is so helpful. Thank you!

  25. Neha 1 year ago at 10:10 am #

    This is wonderful! Thank you for your content!

    • Prerna Singh 1 year ago at 9:37 am #

      Thanks for visiting us and dropping a comment.

  26. Persismd 1 year ago at 4:02 am #

    Thanks for your Information.

  27. Deepak Kumar 1 year ago at 10:30 pm #

    Great post about Indian Food . I really appreciate your efforts put on this blog. Thanks for sharing this

  28. Rajan 1 year ago at 10:36 am #

    Indian food has such a flavorful taste. I enjoy reading about these traditional recipes. Thank you for sharing with me.

  29. joffar 12 months ago at 12:19 am #

    Thanks for sharing this amazing post.

  30. megha 11 months ago at 6:01 am #

    nice post

  31. rajacateringservices 11 months ago at 3:21 am #

    Hey ,

    Thanks for Indian food blogs , It is so delicious and good to read the menus . I enjoyed


  32. bro 10 months ago at 7:50 am #


  33. Moti Mahal Robot Theme Restaurant 7 months ago at 9:42 pm #

    Thanks for sharing such an informative and awesome blog. Really it will help in great manner to know about Indian Foods.

  34. Tandoori tadka 6 months ago at 11:15 am #

    Great Post!!
    Thanks for sharing this post here with us.

  35. Noah Gaduyon 4 months ago at 1:38 am #

    Could you please add more info about sambar to the list. Also do you know about Masala shikanji (unsure if I am writing it right), and info about the salted lassi? And jalebi and ladoo. I llove Indian food too, and I am trying North Indian as well as South Indian foods.

  36. Synthiya Elis 3 weeks ago at 5:54 am #

    I have always loved Indian food. But due to the distance of the country, it is not eaten much. After this i came to know about many recipes. Of course I will try to make at home and try to feel delicious taste. Thanks for sharing a valuable article and I enjoy it.

  37. moniradhorte 2 weeks ago at 3:16 am #

    Thanks for the guide to an Indian restaurant menu. I love Indian food, and I am trying to find some good restaurants near me that offer it. I am still trying to work my way up to having the spiciest dish, but I’m getting there. I have also read another blog about indian food https://mycricketdeal.com/2021/10/11/the-top-10-indian-recipes-and-dishes/
    And i have tried this samosa and its good. Thank you for the blog, Going to try another one!

  38. H N SANNI 5 days ago at 7:00 am #

    please enter the White Rotti and Chapati is also Indian food
    thanks for sharing this post here with us, really it will help in great manner to know about indian foods


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